Amsterdam

Amsterdam (, UK also ; Dutch: [ɑmstərˈdɑm] (listen)) is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,380,872 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area. Found within the province of North Holland, Amsterdam is colloquially referred to as the "Venice of the North", attributed by the large number of canals which form a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, and became the leading centre for finance and trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the city expanded, and many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built. The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Sloten, annexed in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam; is the oldest part of the city, dating to the 9th century.

Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Concertgebouw, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops. It drew more than 5 million international visitors in 2014. The city is also well known for its nightlife and festival activity; with several of its nightclubs (Melkweg, Paradiso) among the world's most famous. Primarily known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system and narrow houses with gabled façades; well-preserved legacies of the city's 17th-century Golden Age. These characteristics are arguably responsible for attracting millions of Amsterdam's visitors annually. Cycling is key to the city's character, and there are numerous bike paths.

The Amsterdam Stock Exchange is considered the oldest "modern" securities market stock exchange in the world. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha world city by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) study group. The city is also the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters in the city, including: the Philips conglomerate, AkzoNobel, Booking.com, TomTom, and ING. Moreover, many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or have established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber, Netflix and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer. The city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report (2nd in Europe), and 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Port of Amsterdam is the fifth largest in Europe. The KLM hub and Amsterdam's main airport: Schiphol, is the Netherlands' busiest airport as well as the third busiest in Europe and 11th busiest airport in the world. The Dutch capital is considered one of the most multicultural cities in the world, with at least 177 nationalities represented.

A few of Amsterdam's notable residents throughout history include: painters Rembrandt and Van Gogh, the diarist Anne Frank, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza.

Continue reading on Wikipedia.

Copyright Wikipedia and its contributors.

Timeline

External links

References

  1. Gemeente Amsterdam Bevolkingsregister AmsterdamAmsterdamPopulation registry, Amsterdam, 1874-1893, part 191, sheet 113
  2. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamExtract of the birth record for Henriëtta Dorothea van Lierop, Amsterdam, 1800-03-02
  3. Gemeente Leeuwarden Bevolkingsregister LeeuwardenCivil registry, Leeuwarden, 1876-1904, sheet 719
  4. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for George Erardus Ris & Johanna Geertruida Lankester, civil registry of marriages, Amsterdam, 1923-03-22, record 183
  5. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for Marinus David Lankester & Elisabeth Geertruida Maria van der Elsken, civil registry of marriages, Amsterdam, 1897-01-14, record 85
  6. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamExtract of the death record for Johannes Lambertus van Lierop, civil registry of deaths, Amsterdam, 1883-03-02
  7. Gemeente Den Helder Bevolkingsregister Den HelderDen HelderCivil registry, Den Helder, 1860-1880, letter "L", sheet 45
  8. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for David Marinus Lankester & Geertruida Van Ling, 1873-09-24
  9. Gemeente Ilpendam Bevolkingsregister IlpendamIlpendamCivil registry, Ilpendam, 1850-1939, 43a-43b, sheet 565
  10. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamBirth record for Jacoba Gesina Lankester, civil registry of births, Amsterdam, 1900-03-17, record 3318
  11. Gemeente Nieuwer-Amstel Burgerlijke Stand Nieuwer-AmstelNieuwer-AmstelMarriage record for Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Blickwedel & Henriëtta Dorothea van Lierop, civil registry of marriages, Nieuwer-Amstel, 1883-04-05, record 30
  12. Gemeente Vlissingen Bevolkingsregister VlissingenVlissingenCivil registry, Vlissingen, 1901-1923, sheet 76
  13. Gemeente Ilpendam Bevolkingsregister IlpendamIlpendamCivil registry, Ilpendam, 1850-1923, part 32, sheet 35
  14. Gemeente Amsterdam Bevolkingsregister AmsterdamAmsterdamPopulation registry, Amsterdam, archive 5000, inventory 2536, part 3, sheet 192
  15. Gemeente Noordwijk Burgerlijke Stand NoordwijkNoordwijkMarriage record for Franciscus Joannes Maria Rövekamp & Wilhelmina Johanna van der Ham, Civil registry of marriages, Noordwijk, 1920, records 43-44
  16. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for Aaldert Jan Jonker & Hendrina Mijntje Schoonhoven, civil registry of marriages, Amsterdam, 1921-08-08, record 674
  17. Gemeente Leeuwarden Bevolkingsregister LeeuwardenCivil registry, Leeuwarden, 1904-1922, sheet 120
  18. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for David Johannes Lankester & Geertje Kok, 1916-08-02
  19. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for Klaas de Boer & Aaltje Eikelboom, civil registry of marriages, Amsterdam, 1891-11-12, record 2712
  20. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for Jacobus de Boer & Johanna Truijen, civil registry of marriages, Amsterdam, 1918-05-30, record 419
  21. Gemeente Nijmegen Burgerlijke Stand NijmegenNijmegenMarriage record for Albert Varenbrink & Mathilda Grunwald, civil registry of marriages, Nijmegen, 1896-03-27, record 38
  22. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for Johannes Isaäc Lankester & Dingena Cornelia van Strien, civil registry of marriages, Amsterdam, 1915-12-16, record 991
  23. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamExtract from the civil registry of births, Amsterdam, for Dirk Jacobus LankesterAccessed June 8, 1922
  24. PrivateA citation is available, but has not been published in order to protect people's privacy
  25. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for Jan Feenstra & Renske Elfring, civil registry of marriages, Amsterdam, 1898-03-02, record 590
  26. Gemeente Delfzijl Burgerlijke Stand DelfzijlBirth record for Jan Feenstra, civil registry of births, Delfzijl, 1899-03-30, records 59
  27. Gemeente Oldenzaal Burgerlijke Stand OldenzaalOldenzaalMarriage record for Jan Feenstra & Petronella van Niekerk, civil registry of marriages, Oldenzaal, 1923-10-20, record 51
  28. Rechtbank Rotterdam Civil registry Rechtbank RotterdamRotterdamDeath record for Jan Feenstra, civil registry, Rechtbank Rotterdam, 1927-04-25, record 2064
  29. Rechtbank Rotterdam Civil registry Rechtbank RotterdamRotterdamCivil registry of births, Rechtbank Rotterdam, 1904-08-18, record 8176
  30. Gemeente Zaandijk Burgerlijke Stand ZaandijkZaandijkCivil registry of deaths, Zaandijk, 1900-09-25, record 28
  31. Rechtbank Rotterdam Civil registry Rechtbank RotterdamRotterdamBirth record for Grietje Feenstra, civil registry of births, Rechtbank Rotterdam, 1907-01-03, record 102
  32. Gemeente Zaandam Burgerlijke stand ZaandamZaandamBirth record for Sijke Feenstra, civil registry of births, Zaandam, 1914-05-25, record 257
  33. Rechtbank Rotterdam Civil registry Rechtbank RotterdamRotterdamBirth record for Boukje Feenstra, civil registry of births, Rechtbank Rotterdam, 1908-06-03, record 6109
  34. Rechtbank Rotterdam Civil registry Rechtbank RotterdamRotterdamBirth record for Trijntje Feenstra, civil registry of births, Rechtbank Rotterdam, 1903, record 4632
  35. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for Harm Feenstra & Geertje Zijda, civil registry of marriages, Amsterdam, 1928-09-27, record 596
  36. Gemeente Zaandam Burgerlijke stand ZaandamZaandamCivil registry of deaths, Zaandam, 1937-01-23, record 37
  37. Gemeente Leeuwarden Bevolkingsregister LeeuwardenCivil registry, Leeuwarden, 1876-1904, sheet 180
  38. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for Willem hendrikus Oogjen & Boukje Feenstra, civil registry of marriages, Amsterdam, 1927-07-28, record 415
  39. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for Auke van der Meer & Grietje Feenstra, civil registry of marriages, Amsterdam, 1928-02-16, record 87
  40. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamExtract from the civil registry of births, Amsterdam, for Jannigje PalsenAccessed June 14, 1922
  41. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamExtract from the civil registry of births, Amsterdam, for Jacoba Gesina LankesterAccessed June 8, 1922
  42. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for Johannes Hendrikus Martelhoff & Johanna Petronella Maria van Hall, civil registry of marraiges, Amsterdam, 1932-06-02, record 281
  43. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamExtract from the civil registry of deaths, Amsterdam, for Geertruida van LingAccessed June 8, 1922
  44. Gemeente Ilpendam Burgerlijke stand IlpendamIlpendamMarriage announcement for Dirk Jacobus Lankester & Jannigje Palsen, Ilpendam, 1922-06-15
  45. Gemeente Utrecht Burgerlijke Stand UtrechtUtrechtMarriage record for Antonius Johannes van Hall & Christina Wilhelmina Schoonhoven, civil registry of marriages, Utrecht, 1910-05-25, record 326
  46. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for Gerard Dirk van de Leur & Aafje Schoonhoven, civil registry of marriages, Amsterdam, 1927-07-14, record 385
  47. Gemeente Haarlem Burgerlijke Stand HaarlemHaarlemMarriage record for Jacobus Lambertus Knol & Dirkje Francisca Schoonhoven, civil registry of marriages, Haarlem, 1921-11-02, record 635
  48. Gemeente Leeuwarden Burgerlijke Stand LeeuwardenLeeuwardenMarriage record for Fedde Feenstra & Pietertje Veen, civil registry of marriages, Leeuwarden, 1914-01-31, record 16
  49. Gemeente Hoorn Burgerlijke Stand HoornHoornDeath record for Dingena Cornelia van Strien, civil registry of deaths, Hoorn, 1922-06-01, record 70
  50. Gemeente Abbekerk Burgerlijke Stand AbbekerkAbbekerkMarriage record for Johannes Isaäc Lankester & Neeltje Zwagerman, civil registry of marriages, Abbekerk, 1927-08-20, record 7
  51. Gemeente Amsterdam Burgerlijke Stand AmsterdamAmsterdamMarriage record for Leonardus Franciscus Schoonhoven & Hendrika Catharina van Arnhem
  52. Personal accountsFirst-person account
  53. Koninklijke/Shell-Laboratorium Amsterdam LabSpiegelJanuary 21, 1983, p.4
  54. De VolkskrantObituary for Nel M. Graafstal-Lankester, De Volkskrant, 2020-02-18Accessed February 23, 2020